United States Army

The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. Historically, the Army was formed before the establishment of the United States, on June 14, 1775, to meet the demands of the American Revolutionary War.

Image:ArmySealLow.jpg

1 Components of the U.S. Army

2 Structure of the U.S. Army

3 Rank Structure

4 Leadership

5 Major Commands of the United States Army

6 Formations of the United States Army

7 See also

8 External link

Table of contents

Components of the U.S. Army

The U.S. Army has three components:

  • The Regular Army
  • The Army Reserve
  • The National Guard of the several States and territories
All three components have taken part in every war of the United States from World War I onward. By design, the use of the Army Reserve and National Guard has increased after the Vietnam War. Reserve and Guard units took part in the Gulf War, peacekeeping in Kosovo, and the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

Structure of the U.S. Army

Officially, a member of the U.S. Army is called a 'Soldier,' with a capital letter.

The U.S. Army is structured roughly:

#army group - when required
#field army
#corps, which consists of two or more divisions and usually has an armored cavalry regiment in support.
#division
#brigade or group: Most American Army divisions are organized in three or more brigades. (See also regiment for cavalry units.)
#battalion or squadron: Infantry and artillery units are organized into battalions. Cavalry or armor units are formed into squadrons. A battalion-sized unit is commanded by a lieutenant colonel.
#company (military unit) or battery or troop: Artillery units are formed into batteries. Cavalry units are formed into troops. A company-sized unit is usually led by a captain.
#platoon. Platoons are usually led by a first or second lieutenant.
#squad or section
#crew or fire team. Fire teams usually consist of four Soldiers: a fire team leader, a grenadier, and two riflemen.
The Army is organized by function. Combat forces include Infantry, Armor, Cavalry, and Special Operations Forces. Combat support troops include Artillery, Army Aviation, combat engineers, Army Logistics, Army Medical Corps, Army Transportation, Army Ordnance, Adjutant General's Corps, Signal Corps. Support troops include the Judge Advocate Generals Corps.

Rank Structure

U.S. Generals, World War II: seated left to right are Simpson, Patton, Spaatz, Eisenhower, Bradley, Hodges, and Gerow; standing are Stearley, Vandenberg, Smith, Weyland, and NugentEnlarge

U.S. Generals, World War II: seated left to right are Simpson, Patton, Spaatz, Eisenhower, Bradley, Hodges, and Gerow; standing are Stearley, Vandenberg, Smith, Weyland, and Nugent

The Officer Corps provides leadership and managerial functions, and is composed of There are several sources of commissioned officers:
  • The U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York commissions its graduates as second lieutenants in the Regular Army. Graduates of other military academies of the United States may elect to be commissioned in the Army
  • Enlisted soldiers who successfully pass Officer Candidate Schools (OCS)
  • College graduates who underwent Army Reserve Officer Training Corps courses at a four-year university
  • Lawyers, doctors, nurses, veterinarians, and chaplains may be directly commissioned into their respective corps
Officers receive a commission assigning them to the Officer Corps from the President. All newly commissioned officers receive a commission as a reserve officer. Upon attaining the rank of Major, they can be appointed into the Regular Army with the advice and consent of the United States Senate. Commissioned officers are assigned to a branch of service until they reach the rank of Brigadier General, where it is assumed that they are competent to command soldiers of all branches.

Once commissioned, an officer attends several levels of professional education, starting with branch qualification in their respective branch and concluding in Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Professional education is required for promotion at certain grades.

The Warrant Officer is a single track specialty officer. Initially appointed an officer by the Secretary of the Army via a warrant, he/she is commissioned by the President upon promotion to the rank of Chief Warrant Officer Two (CW2). The warrant officer is managed as a company grade officer, but receives limited field grade privilege upon promotion to Chief Warrant Officer Four (CW4).

The primary source for Warrant Officers is the U.S. Army Warrant Officer Candidate School at Fort Rucker, Alabama.

The Non-Commissioned Officer Corps (or NCO Corps) is the first line of leadership for the enlisted members of the Army, and includes the ranks of

  • Corporal (CPL; pay grade E-4) (two stripes up),
  • Sergeant (SGT; pay grade E-5)(three stripes up),
  • Staff Sergeant (SSG; pay grade E-6)(three stripes up and one down),
  • Sergeant First Class (SFC; pay grade E-7) and Platoon Sergeant (PSG; pay grade E-7) (three stripes up and two down),
  • Master Sergeant (MSG; pay grade E-8) (three stripes up and three down),
  • First Sergeant (1SG; pay grade E-8) (which holds the same enlisted pay grade as Master Sergeant, but which carries extra administrative duties - three stripes up and three down with a lozenge in the center),
  • Sergeant Major (SGM; pay grade E-9) (three stripes up and three down with a star in the center),
  • Command Sergeant Major (CSM; pay grade E-9) (three stripes up and three down with a wreathed star in the center)
  • and Sergeant Major of the Army (of whom there is only one, and who advises the Chief of Staff of the Army on matters relating to Enlisted personnel - three stripes up and three down with a centered eagle accompanied with two stars).
U.S. Army recruitment posterEnlarge

U.S. Army recruitment poster

Training for NCOs takes place at any of the various NCO training centers around the world.

The quality of the NCO has built the reputation of the United States Army. Until relatively recent history, most countries depended upon their officer corps to micromanage strategy, tactics and virtually every other aspect of military operations. With the development of the NCO Corps, the United States Army took a giant step toward utilizing the skills, intelligence, adaptability and independence of its citizens during times of conflict. The confidence and esteem in which the Officer Corps holds the NCOs which serve in the United States Army is based upon hard-won combat experience. This experience has repeatedly shown that rank is no indicator of leadership ability, and that leaders will emerge during times of hardship and conflict.

The lowest enlisted ranks are:

  • Private (PV1; pay grade E-1) (no rank insignia),
  • Private Enlisted Grade 2 (PV2; pay grade E-2) (one chevron pointing up),
  • Private First Class (PFC; pay grade E-3) (one stripe up and a curved stripe (a rocker below),
  • and Specialist (SPC; pay grade E-4) (which is the same Enlisted Grade as Corporal, but which requires technical leadership skills, as opposed to the combat leadership skills required of corporal -a dark green patch with an eagle centered). A Specialist ranks below a corporal in terms of chain of command.
Training for enlisted soldiers usually consists of Basic Training, and Advanced Individual Training in their primary Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) at any of the numerous MOS training facilities around the world.

All members of the Army must take an oath upon being sworn in as members, swearing (or affirming) to "protect the Constitution of the United States from all enemies, both foreign and domestic." This emphasis on the defense of the United States Constitution illustrates the concern of the framers that the military be subordinate to legitimate civilian authority. The civilian executive is the Secretary of the Army, formerly the Secretary of War, at the founding of the Republic.

Leadership

The professional head of the United States Army is the Army Chief of Staff. This position is filled by a four star general who sits on the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. As with the other members of that committee, the Army Chief of Staff is not in the direct chain of command. His function is administrative and policy making. The current Army Chief of Staff is General Peter Schoomaker.

The most senior Army generals who are directly in the chain of command are those who head up the regional joint commands around the world. An example is General John Abazaid, CINCCENTCOM, the Commander-in-Chief Central Command. Three star positions in the Army include some deputy commanders-in-chief of the regional commands, heads of the army sections of those commands, and the general officers commanding of corps.

Major Commands of the United States Army

Major Commands of the US Army
Major Command and Commanders Location of Headquarters
Intelligence & Security Command (INSCOM)-Major General John F. Kimmons Fort Belvoir, Virginia
Criminal Investigation Command (CID)-Major General Donald J. Ryder Fort Belvoir, Virginia
Corps of Engineers (USACE)-Lieutenant General Robert B. Flowers Washington, D.C.
Medical Command (MEDCOM)-Lieutenant General James B. Peake Fort Sam Houston, Texas
Army Materiel Command (AMC)-General Paul J. Kern Alexandria, Virginia
Training & Doctrine Command (TRADOC)-Lieutenant General Larry R. Jordan Fort Monroe, Virginia
Forces Command (FORSCOM)-General Larry R. Ellis Fort McPherson, Georgia
US Army South (ARSO)-Major General Alfred A. Valenzuela Fort Sam Houston, Texas
Special Operations Command (ARSOC)-Lieutenant General Philip R. Kesinger Fort Bragg, North Carolina
Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC)-Major General Ann E. Dunwoody Fort Eustis, Alexandria, Virginia
Space & Missile Defense Command (SMDC)-Lieutenant General Joseph M. Consumano, Jr. Arlington, Virginia
8th US Army (EUSA)-Lieutenant General Charles C. Campbell Yongsan Army Garrison, Seoul
Army Pacific Command (ARPAC)-Lieutenant General James L. Campbell Fort Shafter, Hawaii
US Army Europe, 7th Army (AREUR)-General B. B. Bell Campbell Barracks, Heidelberg, Germany
Army Central Command (ARCENT)-Lieutenant General David D. McKiernan Fort McPherson, Georgia
Arny Reserve Command (ARC)-Lieutenant General James R. Helmly Fort McPherson, Georgia
Army National Guard (ARNG)-Lieutenant General Roger G. Schultz Washington, D.C.

Formations of the United States Army

First Army "First In Deed" (Reserve)

78th "Lightning" Division, Edison, NJ (Training Support)
:1st Brigade (Training Support)
:2nd Brigade (Training Support)
:3rd Brigade (Training Support)
:4th Brigade (Training Support)
:5th Brigade "We Dare" (Training Support)
85th "Custer" Division (Training Support)
:1st Brigade (Training Support)
:2nd Brigade (Training Support)
:3rd Brigade (Training Support)
:4th Brigade (Training Support)
87th Division "Golden Acorn", Birmingham, AL (Training Support)
:1st Brigade (Training Support)
:2nd Brigade (Training Support)
:3rd Brigade (Training Support)
:4th Brigade (Training Support)
:5th Brigade (Training Support)
Army Units
:4th Cavalry Brigade (Training Support)
:157th Infantry Brigade (Training Support)
:188th Infantry Brigade (Training Support)
:205th Infantry Brigade (Separate) (Light)
Third Army: Army Central Command (ARCENT)

C/JTF-Kuwait
ARCENT Kuwait
ARCENT Saudi
ARCENT Qatar
Army Prepositioned Stock (APS-3)
Army Prepositioned Stock (APS-5)
Fifth Army (Reserve)

7th Infantry Division "Bayonets", Carson, CO (Light)
:39th Infantry Brigade (Light) (Separate)
:41st Infantry Brigade (Light) (Separate)
:45th Infantry Brigade (Light) (Separate)
75th Division, Houston, TX (Training Support)
:1st Brigade (Training Support)
:2nd Brigade (Training Support)
:3rd Brigade (Training Support)
:4th Brigade (Training Support)
91st Division, Houston, TX (Training Support)
:1st Brigade (Training Support)
:2nd Brigade (Training Support)
:3rd Brigade (Training Support)
:4th Brigade (Training Support)
Army Units
:5th Armored Brigade (Training Support)
:120th Infantry Brigade (Training Support)
:166th Aviation Brigade (Training Support)
:191st Infantry Brigade (Training Support)
Seventh Army: United States Army Europe

V Corps, Heidelberg, Germany
:1st Infantry Division ("The Big Red One")
:1st Armored Divsion-- Wiesbaden, Germany
Eighth Army: Korea

:2nd Infantry Division ("Indian Head" Division)
:25th Infantry Division (Light) ("Tropic Lightning")
I Corps, Fort Lewis, Washington ("America's Corps")
::3rd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division (Light)
::1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division (Light)
III Corps, Fort Hood, Texas
:1st Cavalry Division
:4th Infantry Division (Mechanized)
--III Corps U.S. Army National Guard
:7th Infantry Division (Light) ("Bayonet" Division)
XVIII Airborne Corps
:3rd Infantry Division (Mechanized) ("Rock of the Marne")
::3rd Brigade ("Sledgehammer").
10th Mountain Division (Light)
::1st Brigade
::2nd Brigade
::27th Brigade (Orions)-- New York National Guard
:82nd Airborne Division
::82nd Aviation Brigade
325th Airborne Infantry Regiment
:::2nd Battalion 325th Airborne Infantry Regiment
:::3rd Battalion 325th Airborne Infantry Regiment
::504th Parachute Infantry Regiment
:::1st Battalion 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment
:::3rd Battalion 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment
505th Parachute Infantry Regiment
:::1st Battalion 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment
:::2nd Battalion 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment
:::3rd Battalion 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment
101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) (Screaming Eagles)-- Fort Campbell, Kentucky

:XVIII Airborne Corps Artillery
::18th Field Artillery Brigade
2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment

16th Military Police Brigade (Airborne)

18th Aviation Brigade (Airborne)

:20th Engineer Brigade (Combat)(Airborne)
35th Signal Brigade (Airborne)

::108th Air Defense Artillery Brigade
229th Aviation Regiment (Attack)
:::1-229th Attack Helicopter Battalion
3-229th Attack Helicopter Regiment

525th Military Intelligence Brigade (Airborne)

See also

External link